Shops and Residences
Statement of SignificanceThe building at Nos 136-138 Cumberland Street and its site is of STATE heritage significance as a rare surviving example, and of STATE heritage significance as a representative example of a commercial three-storey 'shop and dwelling' building that were once scattered throughout the dense nineteenth century city environs and 'high streets' of the inner Sydney suburbs.It is of STATE significance as a relatively intact component of The Rocks area in general, and the Long's Lane Precinct in particular with its intact scale of buildings and intact original layout of lanes. The relationship between No. 136-138 Cumberland Street and its neighbours in the Long's Lane Precinct is clear and still within the historic street pattern even though many of its nineteenth century neighbours did not survive either the City Improvement Board or the Government's twentieth century resumption and improvements.It is also historically significant at a STATE level for its role as a rooming house for much of its existence, accommodating workers who had arrived in Sydney from abroad and from country NSW. The building at Nos 136-138 Cumberland Street still clearly demonstrates its historic planning particularly with the shop with two shop windows and a splay corner onto Long's Lane as well as the rear service area. Within the building the original hierarchy is still clearly expressed with the ground floor commercial rooms, first floor living areas, second floor bedrooms and rear service rooms. The building retains a reasonable amount of original major fabric and fittings such as its structure, walls and decorative joinery. The fittings and decoration based on the remnant physical evidence and documented photographic and drawn records, which date from the 1978 recording and the 1997 conservation work, enhance the presentation of the building.The building at Nos 136-138 Cumberland Street is of STATE heritage significance for its contribution to the aesthetic significance of the Cumberland Street streetscape, the Long's Lane Precinct, and The Rocks. The use of the Victorian Italianate style for the building was representative of the use of that style for commercial buildings in the 1880s as an expression of solidity, reliability and permanence in the city centre and in suburban 'high streets'.The building and site at Nos 136-138 Cumberland Street is of STATE heritage significance for its research potential as an archaeological resource for the untapped archaeology under the building as well as the untapped archaeological resource of the Long's Lane Precinct that contains artefacts from the first quarter of the nineteenth century and early 20th century development. The building within the precinct has educational value for both specialists and the general public for its ensemble of buildings and laneways as well as the hand-hewn cellar under the shop.
Shop and residence
Residential buildings (private)
Construction Years: 1881 - 1882
Physical Description: 136-138 Cumberland Street is a part of the 'Long's Lane Precinct'. Long's Lane is a cluster of nineteenth and early-twentieth houses, rear yards, and laneways between Gloucester and Cumberland Streets, the Rocks. The three storey corner building is of stuccoed brick with an iron roof. It has moulded string courses and arched windows on the upper two storeys, a moulded coping with decorative corbels and stucco quoins. While this three storey building is typical of 1880s development in detail and planning, it was intended as a shop and boarding house, which may account for its relatively elaborate detailing. While the original planning of the building remains intact, much of the original architectural detailing, apart from the windows, has been removed.Style: Late Victorian ' Italianate'; Storeys: 3; Roof Cladding: Iron
|Lot/Volume Number||Section Number||Plan Folio Code||Plan Folio Number|
Historic Notes and Themes
Historical notes: In the first decades of European settlement cottages above the hospital gardens were referred to as being 'on the rocks'. They were erected in rows that followed the naturally occurring rock ledges. Macquarie attempted to regularise this by promulgating and naming streets in 1810, by which time both Cumberland St and Longs Lane existed on their present alignments.Harper's survey of 1823 shows a long narrow building on the corner of Long's Lane and Cumberland Street and one other building on the lot. These buildings are likely to have been a row of attached cottages, one room deep. The existing cellar cut into the bedrock under the floor of the shop at 136-138 Cumberland Street appears to date from this initial phase of construction. The row was replaced or extended into 6 larger cottages between 1825 and 1831, 5 on Cumberland St and the last on Longs Lane.In June 1831 these six cottages were advertised:"SIX comfortable COTTAGES; five of them situate in Cumberland-street, and the other one in Long Lane, Sydney; the whole of them in good tenantable repair, with separate yards at the back. Four of them have the advantage of a good well of water, and one (at present occupied by Mr. Jones, general dealer) has two frontages. The total rentals are £2 5s. per week. For the conveniency of all persons, they will be put up in six plots, agreeably to a plan which is lying ready for inspection at the office of the auctioneer." The series of conveyances for the adjacent lot, lot 11, show that John Jones conveyed a lot with 'two messauges' on it in 1833 to Isaac Moore and that Moore was eventually granted the property in 1839. When Robert Russell prepared an annotated plan in 1835 showing the claimants of Section 74, the original lot had been subdivided into a series of lots that fronted Cumberland Street and an additional grouping that fronted either Long's Lane or Carahers Lane. Thomas Garrard, a convict under a seven year sentence arrived in Sydney in May 1821. He was living in Kent St, Sydney when he obtained his Certificate of Freedom on 19 April 1827. Robert Russell's plan says Thomas Garrad [sic] claimed the lot on the northern corner of Long's Lane and Cumberland Street: "Thomas Garrad, 4 1/2p., Four and a half perches, bounded on the west by Cumberland-street, bearing south 10 degrees 30 minutes west 38 1/4 links; on the south by Long's-lane, on the east by allotment No. 13, bearing north 8 degrees east 41 links ; and on the north by allotment No. 11 bearing west 9 degrees 30 minutes north 76 links. Quit-rent 2s. 3d. per annum, commencing 1st July, 1823."In addition to the lot in Section 74, 'Garrad' was granted other portions of town land including property in Kent St where the family lived. When his first wife died in 1840, the couple had four children according to the newspaper report of her death, however only John born 1836, James born 1839 and Mary Ann born 1831 can be traced in the records. According to NSW BDM the couple had six children, Francis b 1829, Mary A b 1831, William b 1833, Thomas b 1835, John b 1836 and James b 1839.After the death of his first wife, Garrard married Mary Anne Pinkerstone, a woman much younger than he, in 1842 and they may have had twins, John and Mary Ann who both died in infancy. Thomas Garrard died in mid-1844 aged 50 and two years later Mrs Mary Anne Garrard married David Howell. In his will Garrard had bequeathed his properties to the joiner James Sullivan and Michael Cannon [Gannon], Gentleman of Cook's River as trustees for his surviving children: John, James and Mary Anne. The 1845 rate book entry notes that Mrs Garrett [sic] owned the property in Cumberland Street. Issac Moore owned the adjacent two cottages which he purchased in 1833, and the last was still owned by Benjamin Ford. Ford was the only of the owners who actually lived in the cottage. The cottages were described as being stone, with a shingle roof, however later rate books state brick. When Mrs Mary Anne Garrard remarried, Garrard's nominee James Sullivan took over the properties and continued to manage them throughout the 1850s. The cottages were an investment as the Garrards did not ever live there. The five cottages on Cumberland St were numbered 128-134 on the 1855 block plan but renumbered to 130-138 by 1880. John Garrett [sic] is listed as being the owner in 1861, by which time he was 23. The remainder of the row was owned by E. Brady (a relative of the Moore family) and Benjamin Ford, although he was no longer in residence. In 1861 Lot 12 was subdivided between the surviving Garrard children. To achieve this the land was conveyed by James Sullivan, Michael Cannon [sic], David Howell, Mary Anne Howell (formerly Mrs Thomas Garrard), George Brown, Mary Anne Brown (née Garrard), John Garrard and James Garrard to Josiah Richard Treeve in March 1861. In August 1861 the land was then returned to Mary Ann Garrard's (daughter of Thomas) husband George Brown and her brother James Garrard. George Brown, Mary Ann's husband, managed the two cottages which were in better repair, and worth more, than the others in the row that were owned by Edward Brady and William Ford.James Sullivan, a dealer, lived in one of the cottages from c1858 (No. 134 later 136) until the time of his death in 1862, the next year the house was occupied by a widow, Mrs A Sullivan who operated a green grocer's. It has not been confirmed if she was related to James Sullivan. Alice Sullivan stayed there until 1871, followed by Catherine Strong who also ran a grocery business. Another widow, Mrs Sarah Marlow, occupied the northern cottage in the pair (No. 134 later 136) from 1870 until 1876. She may have remained in the house until her death in May 1877. Michael O'Brien was the last tenant of No. 136, occupying the building from 1879-1880.In 1866 the pair of cottages on lot 12 were once again re-conveyed to John Garrard. In 1876 John Garrard conveyed the property in Cumberland Street to his father-in-law, Richard Egan. John Garrard died of paralysis in 1883 leaving a widow, Ellen, and five children. The transfer of the property to his wife's family may have been made because of his illness. The row survived until 1880 when it appears on Percy Dove's plan but part of Long's tenements fronting the lane had already been demolished. The numbering was now as it is today, 130-138 Cumberland Street. All of the properties on the southern side of Long's Lane, which had been the property of William Long, were condemned including three houses fronting Gloucester Street, a row of eight in the lane and Murphy's hotel on the corner. The row of five cottages on the opposite corner was not mentioned but the entire group was redeveloped around the same time indicating that they had probably also been condemned. Shortly after the buildings were condemned there was an outbreak of smallpox in Cumberland Street that resulted in further public concern about the standard of the building stock. The City Council had long been aware of the condition of tenements in Long's Lane. The houses, now owned by a wealthy landlord and politician James Martin, who had married Long's daughter, Isabella, were not being kept in a fit state. Of more concern to the Health Officer was the 'sickness' that could be found there. The issue was then raised in Parliament, again with Long's Lane being the case in point. The threat of disease was one of the reasons listed for condemning substandard buildings. The City Architect advised the mayor that in addition to being sanitary and architecturally successful, the resulting buildings, which were invariably larger, resulted in increased revenue for the City Corporation. Many of those who had inherited property in The Rocks erected by their fathers or grandfathers chose to rebuild. As a result of the condemnations, buildings of a higher density were erected, the majority of which were standard terrace house forms being utilised by speculative builders throughout Sydney. Corner sites, where a hotel or shop was traditionally located, retained this use.In addition to the housing fronting Long's Lane, the row of five houses in Cumberland Street may also have been condemned, as all three owners choose to rebuild around the same time. As the lots were in separate ownership individual buildings were erected over the decade. Benjamin Ford had moved back into the attached cottage he owned and he remained in occupation of No 130 until at least 1882, the property of the previous tenant having been sold to obtain rental moneys owed in January 1880. By 1882 the two houses on the corner of Long's Lane had been pulled down and a new three-storey shop erected for Kellas Watson. By 1886, No. 130 had been rebuilt and was in operation as a boarding house. Nos 132-134 were the last buildings to be rebuilt.Rather than redevelop the site, Garrard's descendants, the Egan family, sold the property to a speculative builder in 1881. The shop and residence at No. 136-138 Cumberland Street was built in 1881-82 by John Johnson of Camperdown and then on-sold to German-born Kellas Watson, a Sydney wood and coal merchant, who ran a butchery from the building. Watson obtained a mortgage from Johnson to fund the purchase. From the outset, 'comfortable apartments' were being rented out above the shop. In 1882 the three-storey building was described as having 10 rooms. This room number tallies with the 1884 sale description and does not include the stair hall or outbuildings. John Johnson, the builder from whom Watson had borrowed money, was bankrupted in February 1884. As a flow on, the Butchery was advertised for sale and was eventually sold to Henry Edward Castle in December 1884. Kellas did not pay off his mortgage to Johnson, rather equity in the property was conveyed in April 1884 by which time the proposed sale had already been advertised. Watson presumably could not raise sufficient funds to buy the property outright and pay off his loan. The Butchery, when advertised for sale in March 1884, was described as being a "brick-built butcher's shop with dwelling over, being No 138 Cumberland Street, and containing on the top floor four good bedrooms. On the first floor, three large rooms. On the ground floor, spacious shop, fitted complete with all of the requisites for carrying on a butcher's business. A parlour and kitchen in the rear."Henry Castle retained the property at Nos. 136-138 Cumberland Street and leased it out. The butchery business was taken over by Frederick Smith who continued to run a butchery and also rented out rooms either to married couples or single young men. In 1887 the butchery was advertised to let and the Sands Directory lists the occupier as King Hing & Co in 1888-1890. The Chinese importers had initially occupied premises on George Street North near the former Commissariat Stores, but by the 1880s were leasing commercial premises and residences in the streets above. By February 1890 No 138 Cumberland Street was a boarding house, a use that was to continue until 1975. The lodgings were for respectable working men and the rooms were good and airy. In March 1890 apartments for married couples were advertised with bath, piano and board if required. Having a piano was a sign of a particular standard of establishment. In the 1891 Sands Directory the property is listed as a Boarding House run by P. A. Nelson. Peter Augustus Nelson, the proprietor, was of Swedish origin, his surname was anglicised. Following an outbreak of Bubonic Plague in Millers Point, large sections of the waterfront and the adjacent housing were resumed. The property was still in the hands of Henry Castle and occupied by the Nelsons when it was resumed. The resumption plans show that Castle owned the three-storey shop and the lot that extended across the back of the butchery and the pair of houses to the north. The butchery building and Nos 130-134 Cumberland were relatively recent and well-constructed so they were retained. The substandard buildings to the south of Long's Lane and adjacent to Cribb's Lane were photographed, recorded and demolished. In 1912 it was decided to rename the newly straightened Cumberland Street, York Street North. The Nelson family had given up running a boarding house and moved into one of the smaller cottages in the vicinity of Cribb's Lane. In 1914 William Patrick Fitzgerald was the occupant of No 136-138 York Street North. In his obituary it was noted that he had 'conducted a grocery business in The Rocks for more than 50 years'. Fitzgerald was a local, born in Essex Street in 1854 and prior to the resumption, his premises were located on the corner of Little Essex and Cumberland Street. This building was condemned and was to be replaced by a large block of model workmen's dwellings. The 1915 Sands Directory lists the Fitzgeralds in occupation of the shop at No 138 and Mrs Hannah Cooney occupying the residence above (No 136). Katherine George later recalled that her mother had 'bought into the house in December 1911'.Correspondence from the Maritime Services Board (MSB) on the tenancy files referred to the premises as either a lodging house or residential with eight bedrooms. By 1917 Hannah Cooney was occupying the whole building, as W. P. Fitzgerald had moved to No 104 Cumberland Street. Hannah Cooney was the widow of the publican Peter Cooney. They had run Cooney's Hotel in Bathurst Street and then the Surry Hills Hotel in Reservoir Street. In 1908, following her husband's death at the age of 47, Hannah Cooney transferred the hotel into her own name and then shortly after re-transferred the premises to another publican. In 1927, when the property was transferred to the management of the Sydney Harbour Trust, the Cooney family was still in occupation. A series of tenancy cards survive, which show that, for many years, the shop at No 138 was occupied by a separate tenant, Mr Pinder (sometimes listed as Pender), a newsagent. Mrs Cooney was having financial difficulties in 1931 and she requested that the Sydney Harbour Trust reduce her rental, she also asked that the building be repaired and some months later the Council issued a notice requiring repairs, the extent of which was not specified. In 1946 Mrs Cooney was still asking for electric lights and power points when she died and the tenancy was granted to her only daughter, Mrs Katherine M. George. Mrs George took over the tenancy of No 136 for a rental of 2 pounds 10 shillings per week. In 1951 the large front room was to be renovated, the following year Mrs George asked that the whole premises be renovated. E. Hutchinson took over the lease in 1936, then Joseph Pipa Radinger took over the premises in late 1939, following a short tenancy by Mayer and Banngerten. The reason for the short tenancies of the shop is not certain however the decline in the amount of residents due to the construction of commercial buildings and the Sydney Harbour Bridge (Bradfield Highway) would have had an effect on business, as would the depressed economic conditions of the 1930s.Substantial works were undertaken in 1939 to 1941 creating a circular cutting which it was planned would eventually connect Circular Quay with the Harbour Bridge and re-grading of the section of Cumberland Street opposite Nos 130-142 Cumberland Street also occurred then. In 1942 the National Emergency Services used the premises as a Section Post. Following the attack by the Japanese on Sydney Harbour a series of 203 sector warden posts was established across the city, one of which was located in the shop at No. 138 Cumberland Street. Mrs Cooney and her residential continued above. Mr E. Styles took over the shop in 1945 and he intended to establish a picture framing workshop but did not remain for long. E. M. Robbins took over in 1948 until the early 1970s. In the mid-1950s the Cahill Expressway was constructed, which necessitated the removal of the southern half of the block of workmen's dwellings erected by the Housing Board. In Gloucester Street and in Cumberland Street the end units were retained. The street level was cut down so that traffic could pass under the Expressway.Katherine George (née Cooney), who had taken over the residential following her mother's death in 1946, indicated that she would transfer the tenancy in 1953 but this did not finally occur until 1957, when the tenancy was transferred to Mrs P. Raynor. The entry for 1960 shows that Mrs Rayor was still operating the premises as a 'residential'. In 1962 the 'residential' was transferred to Mrs Evanov and Mr Giovanni Posar, tenants in common. In 1968, by which time Mrs Evanov, who had become Mrs Posar, requested repairs to the guttering. The following year the City Council agreed that repairs to the gutter were needed. This is the last entry on the tenancy cards. SCRA files indicate that Mrs Maja Posar died in 1971. Following the transfer of management of the area to the Sydney Cove Redevelopment Authority (SCRA) plans were prepared for the redevelopment of the entire area. The properties were transferred from the MSB to SCRA and the rental was raised from $18 to $38 in September 1974. The following January the Posars vacated the premises, having decided to give up the residential rather than pay more than double the previous rent. The shop appears to have had been vacated in 1973. The National Trust had prepared an initial listing for the buildings which was approved in November 1975. The Trust had also advised the Authority that the entire peninsular had been deemed an Urban Conservation Area. SCRA attempted to proceed with their progressive redevelopment, tendering for the demolition of the buildings in 1978, however, an Interim Heritage Order was imposed by the NSW Heritage Council to prevent the demolition. The continuing program of demolitions was attracting bad publicity for the Authority, particularly as no building had yet been designed to replace the housing stock.The in-house architect, Neil Maitland, prepared a detailed report; five of the buildings were still tenanted, including the shop at No. 138 Cumberland Street that was operating as the SCRA Community Information Centre.SCRA files record that once the premises had been vacated 'vandals' broke into the buildings and even attempted to remove some of the internal features such as fireplace surrounds. What was left of the buildings was measured in December 1978. The condition of the group was noted as being in need of serious work, but structurally sound. In May-June 1979 a detailed report on the buildings was prepared which included detailed conditions reports, measured drawings and a photographic record. A scheme for a substantial multi-storey hotel was prepared in 1980 for sites C7 and C8 (from the Australian Hotel to the Cahill Expressway). The Premier was under pressure from Sheraton who wanted to build a 600-800 bed international hotel, as did other major hotel groups. Advice from Professor Gareth Roberts eventually determined that the hotel scheme was not the most appropriate use of the site and that it was more suited to residential use. In March 1983 the Heritage Council inspected the group of buildings that had been covered by the Interim Heritage Order. They had been asking to be informed of proposals since 1981 and requested that the Authority undertake major repairs to the buildings.Throughout the 1980s a number of schemes were presented to the Authority, none of which went ahead. In the mid-1980s it was proposed to erect a theatre and an initial scheme was prepared by Hassell, Architects. The scheme did not proceed but the idea for that the site would have cultural use was adopted by the Premier's Department which proposed to relocate the Conservatorium of Music. The NSW Government Architect prepared a scheme. Only the facades of the buildings to Cumberland Street and Jobbins Building were proposed to be kept and a large venue erected between, obliterating the lanes.SCRA had prepared outline schemes that required retention of the buildings and Long's Lane, and a new lane established to the north, in a location to the south of where the lane had originally existed. A 'mews' type of development was proposed fronting the mid-block lane, Caraher's Lane. A Development Brief was prepared by SCRA in 1988. As was customary, the development briefs were advertised, and a number of architects, property consultants and developers applied for a copy including housing developers, Stockland and Mirvac. Nine proposals were assessed and this was reduced to four. The preferred proponent was Develco and their scheme was designed by Ancher, Mortlock, Murray and Woolley. Despite a good assessment, the proposal did not eventually go ahead. The Sydney Cove Authority then began to undertake conservation works on the individual buildings that survived on site C8. An order had been issued to demolish part of the rear wings within the Long's Lane Group without the approval of the Heritage Manager. This was stopped and a Conservation Plan was commissioned for the entire group. This report, undertaken by Clive Lucas, Stapleton & Partners in May 1991, included a detailed fabric survey. The squatters were moved on and the windows and doors sheeted over to prevent re-entry. The surviving buildings were progressively conserved, with funding spread over a number of years. New residential buildings were designed in-house for the rear lanes. Works to the now substantially derelict Nos. 136-138 Cumberland Street were undertaken in 1996-97. The conserved buildings in the Long's Lane precinct, and the new infill to the lanes, received the 1996 Lloyd Rees Award for Urban Design from the Royal Australian Institute of Architects (NSW Chapter). The completed building had been let on a commercial basis. At the time of writing this revised CMP (October 2014), the building was vacant, awaiting decisions about future leasing.
Historical significance: Overall the item meets this criterion at a STATE level. The Long's Lane Precinct is historically significant as it is indicative of mid-nineteenth to early twentieth century residential development of The Rocks, retaining strong associational and geographic links with other longstanding uses such as corner shops (Susannah Place) and hotels (The Australian and Glenmore Hotels), all of which are nineteenth century uses. The area now identified with Nos. 136-138 Cumberland Street remains as evidence of the density and character of the early nineteenth century subdivisions in The Rocks. The site commenced in its initial form as part of a row of two single-storey, two-roomed houses, with three separate owners. These were replaced by the current 1880s three-storey commercial / residential building, undertaken during a phase of city improvement in the vicinity of Long's Lane that followed a smallpox outbreak. Nos. 136-138 Cumberland Street is a good and mostly intact example of late nineteenth century inner city commercial / residential corner 'shop and dwelling' which makes an important contribution to the understanding of the historical development of The Rocks and Millers Point. The size of the original lot shows the character of the first phase of residential development of The Rocks, which consisted of small cottages or pairs of cottages, often erected by local builders or publicans as an investment. Tenants were attracted to live in the area because of the proximity to employment within the wharves and related industries. For decades the building operated as a boarding house, providing accommodation for workers and people who had come to the city in search of work. This use continued from the 1890s and was still in operation when SCRA took over the tenancies. The shop has had two uses associated with the wider management of the area, as a warden post during World War II and as the SCRA Community Information Centre during the 1970s. The proposed demolition of 130-138 Cumberland Street and the resulting Interim Heritage Order eventually resulted in the adoption of an approach that retained the historic buildings and infilled new buildings in the rear yard, an approach which received the RAIA (NSW Chapter) Lloyd Rees Civic Design Award in 1998. SCRA files document the change in thinking from razing the entire block to sensitive infill, a change influenced by Professor Gareth Roberts of the University of NSW. The work undertaken by the then Sydney Cove Authority (now the Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority) to sensitively conserve and adapt the precinct and the building and rear yards and retain as much of the significant fabric as possible from the various stages of the buildings' lives added a new contemporary layer reflecting the conservation ethos at the time.
Historical association: Overall the item does not meet this criterion at a STATE or LOCAL level.Three families have associations with the Long's Lane Precinct as owners/developers: Long, Jobbins and Caraher, each provides an interesting contrast in their approach to the way the different allotments were developed. (Clive Lucas Stapleton 1991: pp 52-53)Nos. 136-138 Cumberland Street does not have a strong or special association with significant people who are important in NSW's or The Rocks' cultural or natural history. Although the Long's Lane Precinct group meets this criterion on a Local level, Nos. 136-138 Cumberland Street does not meet this criterion.
Aesthetic significance: Overall the item meets this criterion at a STATE level.The Long's Lane Precinct contributes significantly, in particular, to the townscape of The Rocks, and, in general, Sydney. This significance rests on the ensemble of buildings dating from the mid-nineteenth to early twentieth centuries, together with associated laneways and rear yards. In Cumberland Street the 1880s buildings by their geographic isolation present a varied collection enhanced by the conjunction with Long's Lane which is complemented by the Edwardian style building at 140-142 Cumberland Street."The design of [Nos 136-138 Cumberland Street] consciously relates to the junction between Long's Lane and Cumberland Street, demarcating the public passageway". The building has "relatively elaborate architectural detailing, almost equal to those [sic] on the Jobbin's Buildings, which is [sic] in the Italianate style". (Clive Lucas Stapleton 1991: 56)
Social significance: Overall the item does not meet this criterion at a STATE or LOCAL level.Although The Rocks as a whole is highly valued throughout Australia as a precinct with strong connections to important Australian historical themes, Nos 136-138 Cumberland Street does not have strong or special association with a particular community or cultural group in NSW or the Rocks area for social, cultural or spiritual reasons (other than a brief period in the 1970s when the building was the SCRA Community Information Centre).
Research significance: Overall the item meets this criterion at a STATE level.The Long's Lane Precinct is of prime archaeological significance with its continued European occupation from at least the first quarter of the nineteenth century in a relatively undisturbed state. The Long's Lane Precinct is of educational value to specialists and the general public with its ensemble of nineteenth buildings, laneways and rear yards, and its significance is enhanced by the tangible relationship of the buildings and laneways to the documentary and oral historical information. (Clive Lucas Stapleton 1991: 55- 58)The archaeological potential of the site of No. 136-138 Cumberland Street is high and relates to early development of The Rocks as well as late nineteenth and early twentieth century development. Any subfloor archaeological deposits are a significant resource as is the hand-hewn cellar and delivery chute under the shop.
Rare assessment: Overall the item meets this criterion at a STATE level.Within The Rocks, Nos. 136-138 Cumberland Street is an important survivor from the late nineteenth century that demonstrates its historic planning as a commercial / residential building in the retention of its rear service areas.The Long's Lane Precinct dating from the mid-nineteenth to early twentieth century, together with its open areas, yards, lanes and footpaths dating from the early nineteenth century is rare in the Sydney Region.Importantly, the relationships between Nos. 136-138 Cumberland Street and its neighbours in the Long's Lane Precinct is still clear and unobstructed and still within the historic street pattern.Nos 136-138 is one of only a few listed Italianate shop / residences in the Sydney LGA and is, therefore, now very rare. In the mid nineteenth century Sydney's commercial streets were lined with shops with residences over, of a type imported from England. Most of the few surviving examples are in long-established commercial strips eg George Street north and Erskine Street. Of shop and dwellings on the higher streets of The Rocks, this is the only surviving substantial nineteenth century example, the other surviving examples are two-storey.The full extent of the buildings erected following the introduction of the City Improvement Act has yet to be identified. Within the Rocks, a large proportion of the building stock identified is typical two-storey terrace houses. The two three-storey buildings at No. 130 and Nos 136-138 Cumberland Street are the exception.
Representative assessment: Overall the item meets this criterion at a STATE level.Nos 136-138 Cumberland Street is an excellent example of a three-storey shop and residence, a type once representative of dense, late nineteenth century commercial or 'high streets' in Sydney but is now a rare survivor in Sydney. Moreover, the value of Nos 136-138 Cumberland Street, as part of the Long's Lane Precinct, is considered to be rare in New South Wales, and is, therefore, discussed under Criterion F.
Intact assessment: Archaeological Potential high
|Australian Theme||NSW Theme||Local Theme|
|Developing local, regional and national economies||Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services.|
|Building settlements, towns and cities||Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation ? does not include architectural styles ? use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities.|
|Heritage Listing||Listing Title||Listing Number||Gazette Date||Gazette Number||Gazette Page|
|Register of the National Estate||1/12/036/0484||Terraces||21/10/1980||2389|
|National Trust of Australia Register||10327||Terraces||24/08/1981|
|Heritage Act - State Heritage Register||01592||10/05/2002||2868||85|
|Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage register||Place Management NSW|
|Within a National Trust conservation area||10499|