Statement of Significance130 Cumberland Street and its site are of State heritage significance for their historical and scientific cultural values. The site and building are also of State heritage significance for their contribution to the Longs Lane Precinct and The Rocks area as a whole. The relationship between No. 130 Cumberland Street and its neighbours in the Longs Lane Precinct is clear neighbours did not survive the Government twentieth century resumption and improvements.Within the state significant Rocks and Millers Point areas, 130 Cumberland Street site is an important survivor from the late nineteenth century which still retains its tenanted residential use and still clearly demonstrates its historic planning particularly with its service areas. 130 Cumberland Street exhibits all the key characteristics of a late nineteenth century modest inner city residential terrace. Within the building, the original hierarchy is still clearly expressed with the ground floor formal rooms, first and second floor bedrooms and rear service rooms and the building retains a critical mass of its major fabric and fittings such as its structure, timber stair walls, decorative joinery and fireplace. The fittings and decoration, which date from the 1990s reconstruction work, and the deliberate retention of the building's external weathered patina, heighten the experience of the building's age.The positioning of the terrace on an abrupt sandstone and beton brut plinth formed out the lowering of Cumberland Street has raised the building and its wide bare north wall up as an local landmark in Cumberland Street.
Residential buildings (private)
Construction Years: 1888 - 1888
Physical Description: 130 Cumberland Street is a part of the 'Long's Lane Precinct'. Long's Lane is a cluster of nineteenth and early-twentieth houses, rear yards, and laneways between Gloucester and Cumberland Streets, The Rocks. 130 Cumberland Street is a three storey building typical in scale and detail of terrace type buildings erected in the inner suburbs of Sydney during the 1880s. (Clive Lucas Stapleton 1991:55)It is built of stuccoed brick with an iron roof, and has moulded string courses and the windows on the two upper levels are round headed. It relates in style to the two and three storey Italianate terraced buildings at Nos132-4 and Nos 136-8 Cumberland Street. (Karskens 1981)Style: Late Victorian Italianate; Storeys: 3; Roof Cladding: Iron
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Historic Notes and Themes
Historical notes: Occupation on this site is known from c1822 when George Cribb constructed a row of tenements along Cumberland Street to Longs Lane. These were demolished and replaced by a row of single storey terraces around 1834. The first recorded grant was to Benjamin Ford in January, 1839 and the site of No. 130 was then known as Allotment 10, Section 74, comprising 2.5 perches. (Govt Gazette 18/1/1839). In 1845, the City Council noted the building on Allotment 10 was a two room brick and stone house with shingled roof in 'middling repair'. The 'date of taking' is noted as 1833 which may imply a date of construction, or earlier assessment by the Town Surveyor. The tenant in this year and until c.1860 was the owner, Benjamin Ford, described as either a dealer or a cooper (Sands Directory). Between 1845 and c1882, the date of demolition, the building was described as a letted 'shop' or 'house and shop' of brick and/or stone construction. In 1861 Council noted that the 'floor (was) under (the) footpath'.In 1888 the present building on the site was erected as a speculative venture (owner not determined) and was first tenanted by William McGee, tobacconist. It was described by Council in 1891 as a three-storey seven room brick house with iron roof. Magee resided in the house until 1895 (Sands Directory).In 1903 the land and building were resumed by the NSW Government under The Rocks Resumption Act, 1901.The building at No 130 remained tenanted as a residence until 1976. In the 1980s the building was boarded up. For the next 10 years, the building was intermittently occupied by squatters and a period of vandalism ensued during which much of the joinery and many of the fixtures were stolen. The timbers were subject to termite activity during this time.The original plan of the building has remained intact together with some of the original architectural detailing. (SCRA 1984: CU/04; see also Clive Lucas Stapleton 1991:50-53) The Sydney Cove Authority undertook extensive work in the precinct in the mid 1990s. The work included the conservation and restoration of the buildings and rear yards of 103-117A Gloucester and 130-142 Cumberland Streets, the construction of four new sensitively sited and designed infill dwellings, and the conservation and reopening of the two historic laneways, namely, Long's and Caraher's Lanes. The work involved the retention of as much of the significant fabric as possible from the various stages of the buildings' lives, and was carried out in a number of stages from 1992-97. (Mountstephens 1997)The conservation work carried out on the Longs Lane precinct won the Royal Australian Institute of Architects 1998 Lloyd Rees Award for Outstanding Urban Design.
Historical significance: The historical significance of the Terrace at 130 Cumberland Street is demonstrated by:The Longs Lane Precinct is historically significant as it is indicative of mid nineteenth to early-twentieth century residential development of The Rocks, retaining strong associational and geographic links with adjacent community uses such as shops (Susannah Place), and hotels (The Australian and others). 130 Cumberland Street is a good and mostly intact representative example of a late nineteenth century modest inner city tenanted residential terrace and makes an important contribution to the understanding of the historical development of The Rocks and Millers Point particularly of the areas' resident use.The area, which is now identified with 130, is slightly longer than the original 1830s lot, but its narrowness remains as evidence of the density and character of the early nineteenth century subdivisions in The Rocks. As a single lot terrace type, the residence demonstrates how at the time of its construction the density of The Rocks was increased by the insertion of terrace houses into the layers of existing housing stock.The site, Allotment 10 of Section 74, commenced as a speculative venture in its initial form as a row of tenements in 1822, replaced in 1834. The previous building, described in 1845 as being a single storey stone dwelling, was replaced by the current 1890s terrace still confined by the scale of the 1830s lot.The size of the original lot is testament to how lower quality housing came about in the nineteenth century, mostly built by speculative developers which was let to tenants who were attracted to live in the area because of the proximity to employment within the wharves and related industries. The terrace, in conjunction with the other buildings in the Longs Lane precinct, has historical significance as a survivor of dramatic changes that took place in The Rocks in the twentieth century, namely the government resumptions when substandard buildings were demolished (early 1900s), and major demolitions that occurred for construction of the Harbour Bridge approach (from 1924) and subsequently excavation for the Cahill Expressway (between 1955 and 1957). The work undertaken by the then Sydney Cove Authority to sensitively conserve and adapt the precinct and the building and rear yards and retain as much of the significant fabric as possible from the various stages of the buildings' lives added a new contemporary layer reflecting the conservation ethos at the time and is enhanced by the retention of the rear service rooms in addition to the main building volume.The terrace at 130 Cumberland Street meets this criterion at a STATE level.
Historical association: The historical associational significance of the Terrace at 130 Cumberland Street is demonstrated by:Three families have associations with the Longs Lane precinct as owners/developers: William Long, John Jobbins and Owen Caraher. Long was a successful merchant and local landowner (also owner of SHR-listed "Tusculum" in Potts Point), Jobbins likewise, and a pastoralist who was responsible for development of the Yass/ Gundaroo district in NSW, and Caraher was a local businessman and NSW politician serving on the early Sydney Council. Each provides an interesting contrast in their approach to the way the different allotments were developed. (Clive Lucas Stapleton 1991: pp52-53) 130 Cumberland Street itself does not have a strong or special association with significant people who are important in NSW or The Rocks' cultural or natural history. The terrace at 130 Cumberland Street does not meet this criterion at a State or Local level.
Aesthetic significance: The aesthetic significance of the Terrace at 130 Cumberland Street is demonstrated by:The Longs Lane Precinct contributes significantly to the townscape of The Rocks. This significance rests on the ensemble of buildings dating from the mid-nineteenth to early- twentieth centuries, together with associated laneways and rear yards. In Cumberland Street, the 1880s buildings by their geographic isolation present a varied and characterful collection enhanced by the conjunction with Longs Lane which is complemented by the Edwardian style building at 140-142 Cumberland Street. (Clive Lucas Stapleton 1991: p57)130 Cumberland Street is a good representative example of a modest late nineteenth century bald faced terrace with some Italianate detailing but does not in itself demonstrate a high degree of aesthetic, creative or technical achievement. The building demonstrates mostly modest standards of construction in materials and workmanship.The positioning of the terrace on an abrupt sandstone plinth formed out the lowering of Cumberland Street almost accidentally raised the building and its wide bare north wall up as an local landmark although the building's north wall has been a local feature since the construction of the terrace. (The terrace's former northern neighbour was a single storey house). The reconstructed fabric dating from the 1990s has aesthetic significance for reinstating the original appearance of the building in areas where the original fabric was missing or damaged.The conservation work and urban design work that reinstated public access to the Longs Lane precinct won the Royal Australian Institute of Architects 1998 Lloyd Rees Award for Outstanding Urban Design, providing evidence of the esteem in which it is held.The terrace at 130 Cumberland Street meets this criterion at a LOCAL level.
Social significance: The social significance of the Terrace at 130 Cumberland Street is demonstrated by:Although The Rocks as a whole is highly valued throughout Australia as a precinct with strong connections to important Australian historical themes, 130 Cumberland Street itself does not have strong or special association with a particular community or cultural group in NSW or The Rocks area for social, cultural or spiritual reasons.In conjunction with other historic buildings in The Rocks, however, it is representative of the Green Bans and the successful community action to preserve the residential community in the area.It has potential to be important to a community's sense of place, in this case residents of The Rocks and Millers Point and their descendants who participated in the resident action and social movements of the 1970s known as the Green Bans, and their supporters in the Builders Labourers Federation. They were able to influence urban renewal proposals of the day in ways that lead to the development of tourism as a local industry that could support conservation of historic buildings and provide employment opportunities for local people, and which transformed community perceptions of The Rocks as a place from a paradigm of degrading slums to that of the 'birthplace of the nation'. Other tourism developments of the period in The Rocks, such as the revival of Australia Day celebrations in The Rocks in 1975, also contributed to this changing sense of place.The terrace at 130 Cumberland Street meets this criterion at a LOCAL level.
Research significance: The research significance of the Terrace at 130 Cumberland Street is demonstrated by:The Longs Lane Precinct is of state archaeological significance with its continued European occupation from at least the first quarter of the nineteenth century in a relatively undisturbed state. The Longs Lane Precinct is of educational value to specialists and the general public with its ensemble of nineteenth buildings, laneways and rear yards, and its significance is enhanced by the tangible relationship of the buildings and laneways to the documentary and oral historical information. 51The site may be considered to be an extension of the adjacent site where the major State significant archaeological investigation - the Cumberland Street Dig - was undertaken. There is evidence that the worked face of a pre-1820s quarry that was uncovered on the Dig site extends along beneath the properties at 130-138 Cumberland Street (the rear kitchen wing of 130 was constructed on fill). Furthermore, underpinning works in the 1990s revealed evidence of a structure at the rear of 130 Cumberland Street located near to another that was found on the Dig site (the rear yard of 130 Cumberland Street corresponds with parts of the former yards of 9-11 Carahers Lane). The significance of this evidence is high. While the archaeological resource was identified during the 1990s conservation works on the site, no archaeological material was removed.The archaeological potential of the site of No. 130 Cumberland Street is of state significance and relates to early development of The Rocks as well as late nineteenth and early twentieth century development. 130's rear yard corresponds with parts of the former yards of 9-11 Carahers Lane. The significance of this evidence is high. Any subfloor archaeologicaldeposits are a significant resource and it is expected that remains of the pre-1890 occupation will be present.The terrace at 130 Cumberland Street meets this criterion at a STATE level.
Rare assessment: The rarity of the Terrace at 130 Cumberland Street is demonstrated by:Within The Rocks, 130 Cumberland Street site is an important survivor from the late nineteenth century which still retains its residential use and demonstrates its historic planning particularly its service areas. The Longs Lane Precinct dating from the mid nineteenth to early twentieth centuries which together with its open areas, yards, lanes and footpaths dating from the early nineteenth century is rare in the Sydney Region as advised by the Clive Lucas Stapleton & Partners Conservation Analysis (Clive Lucas Stapleton 1991: 58). Importantly, the relationship between 130 Cumberland Street and its neighbours in the Longs Lane Precinct is still clear and unobstructed and still within the historic street pattern. A great number of residential buildings in The Rocks have been demolished in the twentieth century while others have been adapted for alternate uses. As such, residential use of historic buildings in The Rocks has greatly declined and is a tradition that is in danger of being lost. The retention of the terrace at 130 Cumberland Street and its continued residential use has rarity value.The architectural character of the building as a three storey bald face single terrace dwelling is very rare in The Rocks and in the inner suburbs of Sydney.The building has rarity value as a surviving element of the Longs Lane Precinct.The terrace at 130 Cumberland Street meets this criterion on a STATE level.
Representative assessment: The representativeness of the Terrace at 130 Cumberland Street is demonstrated by:130 Cumberland Street is a good intact representative example of a late nineteenth century modest inner city residential terrace. However, the value of No. 130 Cumberland Street as part of the Longs Lane precinct is considered to be rare in New South Wales and is thereforediscussed under Criterion F. The terrace at 130 Cumberland Street is representative as an example of a late nineteenth century modest inner city residential terrace constructed on a single lot. While the terrace isnot part of a row, as is more usual for this type of building, in The Rocks density was increased by insertion of terrace houses into the existing housing stock, resulting in paired or single terraces in some cases.The terrace at 130 Cumberland Street meets this criterion on a LOCAL level.
Intact assessment: Archaeological research potential is high
|Australian Theme||NSW Theme||Local Theme|
|Developing local, regional and national economies||Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture.|
|Building settlements, towns and cities||Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation ? does not include architectural styles ? use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities.|
|Heritage Listing||Listing Title||Listing Number||Gazette Date||Gazette Number||Gazette Page|
|Register of the National Estate||1/12/036/0484||Terraces||21/10/1980||2389|
|National Trust of Australia Register||10327||Terraces||24/08/1991|
|Heritage Act - State Heritage Register||01600||10/05/2002||2869||85|
|Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage register||Place Management NSW|
|Within a National Trust conservation area||10499|