Statement of SignificanceThe Glenmore Hotel is of State heritage significance for its historical, scientific and cultural values. The building has aesthetic and technical significance as an intact example of Inter War Georgian Hotel design retaining many features characteristic of the building type and style.The license for the Glenmore Hotel has been associated with two subsequent buildings in Cumberland Street, continuously operating since 1837. The current hotel, constructed in 1921, was designed and built by Sydney brewers Tooth & Co. The building's aesthetic significance is evidenced in detailing typical of the period such as face brick work, tiled plinth bases, regular fenestration and multi-paned sash windows.The historic and cultural values of the Hotel are demonstrated through its continued operation. The Hotel remains a working example of changing Hotel operations, legislative changes and drinking habits. Physically these changes are represented in the removal of the Ladies Parlour, upgrade of bathroom facilities, inclusion of 'pokies', activation of the rooftop for use as an alfresco bar and the cessation of Hotel accommodation for use as function spaces. The 2012 infill structure to the north houses extensive catering facilities in part a response to the contemporary functioning of Hotel operations.Sufficient archival, documentary and physical evidence remains to allow for the reconstruction and interpretation of the original plan configuration and missing architectural detailing, such as the pediments to the Cumberland Street parapet (removed c.1975).The site's history prior to the construction of the Glenmore has strong links with the development of Australia's maritime industries. Initially traders and ship owners such as Captain John Hunter and the Chapman family, Captain Frederick Mahler, Captain George Bainbridge lived here with their families while they traded in the South Seas. Later part of the site was owned by wharf-builder Alfred Whetton, while tenants included shipwright Alfred Myers, sailors Henry Ellory and William White, waterman Thomas Waters, and in the last decades wharf labourers such as members of the Olsen family. The site's early history has further associations with members of the Walsh and Cheers family who operated pubs in The Rocks and other parts of Sydney from 1798.Site owners and occupants such as Harriet Walsh, George Bainbridge, George Atherden and Alfred Whetton also owned and developed other parts of The Rocks in the 19th century.The Glenmore, along with the Observer, Australian, Mercantile, and Fortune of War Hotels was constructed as part of the NSW Government's post-Resumption (ie 1901) reconstruction of The Rocks. Specifically this small group of hotels was not only to provide refreshment for the local community, but also places of lodgement for itinerant waterside workers following the reorganisation of the local wharves as part of the same NSW Government initiative. (CMP 2014)
Builder/Maker: D. Mitchell
Construction Years: 1921 - 1921
Physical Description: Storeys: 3; Facade: Brick walls, painted timber windows; Side Rear Walls: Brick; Internal Walls: Brick; Roof Cladding: Flat 'malthoid covered' roof; Internal Structure: Wall finish (plaster), tiled wall dado to the Public Bar.; Floor Frame: Floor finish (vinyl), floor covering (carpet); Ceilings: Fibrous plaster & battens; Lifts: No
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Historic Notes and Themes
Historical notes: The site of the Glenmore Hotel forms part of the traditional lands of the Cadigal people of Sydney Harbour. No indigenous sites have been recorded in the immediate vicinity, however at the site of the Shangri-La Hotel (174 Cumberland Street) a campfire with food remains consisting of bream, Schnapper and various mussels and oyster varieties, was uncovered during archaeological work in 1989. The subject site forms the northern end of the Cumberland Street ridge which terminated at Bunkers Hill, the name of an area which was sometimes extended somewhat to the south to include this site. Bunker's Hill took its name from Captain Eber Bunker, and American whaling captain, who settled for a time approximately 100 metres to the north of the Glenmore site. In the 1810s some large houses, such as Bunker's, were constructed in the vicinity, with views over the harbour. During archaeological monitoring in 2012 a "dump" or colonial-made coin valued at 15 pence, dated 1813 was discovered within the north-east corner of the Glenmore Hotel. The deposit was within what became 19/39? Gloucester Street or within the fill of the former street itself. These coins were withdrawn from circulation in the late 1820s and this example is evidence of early European occupation on the site, possibly relating to the Walsh, or an earlier family's, residence here.Harriet Cheers was born in Sydney to ex-convict publican Richard Cheers (1758-1827) and Margaret Fogarty (1758-1810). On the death of her brother, Richard Cheers (1802-1827) Harriet inherited his property. She married four times. Her first marriage in 1821, at the age of 15, was to 45 year-old John Neale (1776-1826) by whom she had a daughter Jane (1824-?). John Neale held the publican's license for the Sapling in Cambridge (Gloucester) Street in 1820-21, and died in 1826. Harriet next married William Walsh (1806-1834), the son of free settler William Walsh (1771-1825). Walsh senior had arrived in 1810 and from 1815 held the publican's license for the Duke of Wellington pub in The Rocks, located on the site of Susannah Place. Seeking to sell his interests in the Government windmill for a period of three years, Walsh placed an advertisement in the Sydney Gazette, giving his contact address as Gloucester Street which may have been the house on part of the Glenmore site. This is supported by the report of Walsh's death in 1834 where his address is given as Bunker's Hill. Given that both Harriet's and William's families had long associations with The Rocks, and both inherited property in the 1820s, it is possible that the site formed part of the Cheers or Walsh holdings prior to 1825. In all likelihood the property is that which was sold to William Walsh senior on 12 January 1824 by the widow Margaret Sheppy, described as "No. 19 Cumberland Street".When William Walsh died in 1834, Harriet inherited her husband's property, including his father's former pub the Duke of Wellington (now Susannah Place) and the Rising Sun Tavern on Church Hill (Grosvenor Street), which she held in trust for her children. Harriet married Richard Wyatt, Captain of the Hind, in 1836, who died soon afterwards on 13 December. Next, Harriet married Robert Murray in 1839. Harriet died at Paterson in the Hunter Valley, in 1841. Robert Murray survived his wife by ten years, and died at his home in Paddington in December 1851. Between Walsh's death in 1834, and her own death at Paterson in 1841, it is not known where Harriet resided. Her Gloucester Street house was owned by George Atherden by 1852. George Atherden was born in Dover, England, and arrived in Sydney as a free settler in the ship Dick in 1821. In 1831 he married the widowed Harriet Ann Connor (nee Parker) (1796-1875) who had arrived in Sydney as a 14 year old convict in 1810 on the Canada. Atherden owned a number of properties in The Rocks, and lived in George Street near the street that today bears his name. By the time George Atherden had become the owner of Walsh's Bunkers Hill property by 1852 the property had been redeveloped as five dwellings, which Sydney Council rate books list as built of stone, and shingled. It is uncertain whether the first or last building corresponds with the site of the Glenmore. From 1864 there is a clear record of the occupants of 19 Gloucester Street. First mentioned in Sands is John Howson, an engineer. In 1865, George Beaver (Master Mariner) took up residence for the following two years. In 1867 William Merriman became the tenant. William Merriman was born in London, trained a butcher from the age of 15, and arrived in Sydney in 1855. While living at 19 Gloucester Street (from 1867-1870) he married the widow Sarah Barrett (1834-1902) who brought with her children from her previous marriage. The couple had more children of their own. This change in circumstances may have necessitated William's move, since the Gloucester Street house had only 4 rooms and was in poor repair according to the Council's rate records for 1867. It is not known when George Walker came to Australia; however in Sydney in 1851 he married Amelia Emmaline Downes (1831-1878). By 1861 the family was living in The Rocks; at 89 Cumberland Street, and later 44 Gloucester Street (1865), before moving to 19 Gloucester Street in c1873. Walker's 16 year old daughter Amelia married Charles Smyth in 1869. The Smyths were living at 48 Cumberland Street at the time of the death of their daughter Amelia in 1874. The same year Charles placed a notice in the Sydney Morning Herald announcing the death of his 17 year old sister-in-law Harriet (the wife of Joseph Peters); the funeral for whom left from 19 Gloucester Street. THE FRIENDS of Mr. CHARLES SMYTH are invited to attend the Funeral of his late deceased SISTER-IN-LAW, Mrs. Harriet Peters; to move from the residence of her father, Mr. George Walker, 19, Gloucester-street, TOMORROW (Sunday) MORNING, at a quarter-past 8, to Balmain Cemetery. C. KINSELA. By 1880 the Smyth's had taken over residence of 19 Gloucester Street from George, operated a grocer/ fruiterer business from 19 Gloucester Street from 1882-1888. GEORGE WALKER. Late of No 19, Gloucester-street, SydneyThe Sands Directories lists "Mrs Smyth" operating a fruiterer business from the address between 1884 and 1887, suggesting Charles was not the "householder" and may have been living elsewhere. Nothing else is known of the Smyths. The Gloucester Street houses were purchased by Frederick Smith, who retained them until the NSW Government resumed the area after 1901. The identity of Frederick Smith, who owned the property from 1879-c1902 has not yet been ascertained. Smith does not appear to have resided on the site. One possibility for his identity is a landowner who lived at Berry's Bay, and who served as an alderman for Balmain Council in the 1870s. This may be the same person as Frederick Smith of 8 Queen's Place, who was trustee for 53 George Street in 1891, and which was also formerly a property belonging to George Atherden. Further research is required. From map evidence it appears that Smith's row of houses was rebuilt in 1889-90, when No 39 Gloucester Street was subdivided to become Nos 39 and 39½ Gloucester Street. It was 39½ that was largely on the Glenmore site. Captain John Hunter (1793-1844) John Hunter was born in 1793. According to shipping musters he was born in Sydney although a registration of his birth has not been found. The 1825 Muster lists him as "Came Free" on the Isabella (arrived 1812). Hunter married Susannah (Flannagan) Chapman in 1817. Susannah (1797-1889) was the daughter of Ann Mash (1767-1823) and her husband Robert Flannagan (1768-c1798). Flannagan disappeared in 1798 and Ann formed a relationship with William Chapman (1765-1810) by whom she had six children. The couple lived in The Rocks, where William operated a butcher's shop and held the license for the King's Head in George Street while Ann operated a ferry service from Sydney to Parramatta. A number of Ann Mash's children played prominent roles in the development of The Rocks. The earliest reference so far located to John appears in the Ship's Musters from 1817 as a member of the crew of the colonial brig Active. The following year he visited New Zealand and Tahiti as first mate on the Active, serving on that ship, with numerous cross-Tasman voyages, until 1820. In 1821 he became Master of the Governor Macquarie. A few months later Hunter returned from another voyage to Tahiti with a cargo comprising of 60 tons of coconut oil and 7 tons of arrow root. Tahiti became more and more of a base for Hunter's activities. The Sydney Gazette on 24 March 1830 reported that: Captain Hunter, formerly of this port, has built a little vessel at Otaheite. He lately made a profitable voyage with the produce of the island to Valparaiso.This ship, the Ulitea, made numerous trading voyages between Tahiti and Sydney throughout the 1830s. Susannah Hunter frequently accompanied her husband. When the Ulitea arrived in Sydney in December 1832 after a six week voyage it not only brought "18 casks of coconut oil, arrow-root, &c", but also "Mrs Hunter and seven children; Captain Buckle, of the ship Matthews wrecked at Tahiti; Mr, Coulong, from the islands; Mr. Robson, late owner of the schooner Schnapper, and Master C Baff." Another family ship, the Ann, belonging to Hunter's brother-in-law, shipbuilder and ship-owner William Henry Chapman, aground at Newcastle with a cargo of coal bound for Sydney in March 1834. John Hunter was there to lend a hand, spending three weeks unsuccessfully attempting to refloat the wreck. It was around this time that Hunter formally registered his title for the land on which the Glenmore stands. As was usually the case, anyone who could demonstrate that had some form of possession of town property, usually extending for around 20 years, or else that they had purchased it from someone with a similar claim, was registered as the owner. The claim was published in surveyor Robert Russell's plan of land grants in Sydney the following year. The earliest plan of the building is found in Harper's map of 1823, which indicates a single residence. The outline remains virtually unchanged until the clearance of the site around 1911-12. By 1855 it is shown as two dwellings and by 1880, and subsequently, it is divided into three dwellings. It is currently unclear as to the extent of Hunter's residence on the site. From 1826 onwards he spent more and more time in Tahiti before settling there permanently. The property appears to have passed to Hunter's brother-in-law, James Chapman (1810-1858), by 1845, and soon after to George Bainbridge. Further title research is necessary to clarify the transfer of ownership from the 1830s until it came into the possession of George Bainbridge. By 1845 the house was converted from a single into dual residences, and finally into three in 1861. Sydney Council's rate records show John Hare to have been the occupant in 1845 when the building was owned by James Chapman (1810-1858), however nothing more has been researched on him at this stage. Little is currently known of Captain George Bainbridge prior to his command the ships Success and Skerne in 1838-40, trading out of Sydney with Newcastle, Tasmania and New Zealand. From 1840-1854 Bainbridge was employed as pilot in Sydney Harbour, by 1845 Bainbridge was living at Cumberland Street on the north east side of the Argyle Street Bridge; directly behind and adjoining the subject site. In 1847 he sold the house he owned at Watson's Bay, and it is possible he purchased the Gloucester Street building at this time. Bainbridge also owned another house at 116 Gloucester Street, near where the Cahill Expressway now crosses. Bainbridge returned to the sea in 1854, and when giving evidence of the sinking of the Dunbar in 1857, was described as "Master of the Washington", a 200 ton steamer. Only a few months earlier Bainbridge and his ship had been active in rescuing the survivors of the Fame which sunk at Sow and Pigs Reef in Sydney Harbour. Sydney Council's surveyor, Edward Bell, brought to Council's attention a number of buildings constructed without their permission in April 1861. These included three built in Gloucester Street by Bainbridge, presumably the conversion of the former house. George Bainbridge's wife Catherine (Davies) died in 1867 and two years later he married Elizabeth Donohue (d1919). He remained at Cumberland Street until c1876 when he moved to Petersham, where he died in 1895. Bainbridge had sold his property to Alfred Whetton in 1893. Born in London, England on 22 May 1833, Alfred, a Carpenter, married Mercy Nicholson (1835-1898) in Hull, Yorkshire, in 1855. The family arrived in Sydney on the Tudor in 1860, Alfred finding work as a ship's carpenter on the Lord Ashley between NZ and Sydney from 1860-63. In the 1870s he was working at Rowntrees's Floating Dock, Darling Harbour, and over the next decades built up a business constructing wharves and other maritime structures. The family built up an extensive property portfolio, largely in The Rocks where they also lived- primarily in Princes Street in the 1880s-90s.Whetton purchased the three properties 41-45 Gloucester Street in in 1893, although he wasn't living on the site. The property was resumed by the NSW Government after 1902. The first Glenmore Hotel, known more correctly as the Glenmore Cottage, had been established around 1837. It was located in Cumberland Street, less than 50m from the current hotel. For 80 years it served the public, offering dances and entertainment on three nights of the week in the 1860s, and hosting coronial inquests (as did many Rocks pubs) when locals died under unusual circumstances. When elections were held for Sydney Council or the NSW Legislative Assembly candidates (sometimes Rocks businessmen like Patrick Freehill) often met their local voters here in public meetings. A plan dated 1913 showing the re-alignment of Cumberland and Gloucester Streets, also shows the triangular block marked "Site for the Glenmore Hotel". The site is a little over half the size of what would be constructed. In this year plans for the construction of the Sydney Harbour Bridge were revisited, which were eventually to lead to the demolition of 280 buildings between Cumberland and Upper Fort Streets, including the former Glenmore Cottage. In 1919 the rebuilding of the Glenmore Hotel was proposed as the 'old' hotel, located north and across the road from the current site at 49 Cumberland Street (Fig 96), had been condemned and was earmarked for demolition due to the construction of the southern approaches to the Sydney Harbour Bridge. In the same year, Tooth & Co. Ltd were granted a 50 year lease on the hotel, provided that not less than £4000 was spent in erecting the new building. The three-storey brick building designed by the Tooth & Co. Ltd Architects Office and originally with a flat iron roof, was completed at a cost of £7,905/7/4 by D. M. Mitchell. During much of its life the Glenmore provided accommodation to wharf labourers employed on the Sydney waterfront. From its earliest days until the general transfer of Sydney Harbour's wharfage to Botany Bay in the 1970s, the site of the Glenmore Hotel has maintained links with maritime industries. In January 1970, the property was vested in the Sydney Cove Authority under the Sydney Cove Redevelopment Authority Act, 1968. In 1975, work was carried out to rectify major structural defects. The 20th century history of the Glenmore Hotel has been fairly uneventful, like that of other hotels throughout The Rocks. A few licensees lost their licence for various misdemeanours, and trade declined during the Depression. Trade was also badly affected for a few years around 1952, when Cumberland Street was closed off due to the unsafe nature of the bridge over Argyle Street - the bridge bearing similar cracks to those which had appeared in the Glenmore Hotel. With the exception of the removal of the canopy over the bar in 1952, the hotel remained intact until it was resumed by the Authority in 1970 and the rectification works carried out in 1975.The Hotel continued to have problems with the flashing and waterproofing of the rooftop, and the structural failure of the walls at parapet level until the base building works undertaken in 2012.The Glenmore Hotel is subject of a long term lease agreement which transfers the responsibility of maintenance to the lessee. In 2011 a substantial upgrade was approved by the Department of Planning and Infrastructure and NSW Heritage Council. These works are now complete and included an infill building to the northern yard, provisions of a lift, conversion of the first floor accommodation to function rooms (including the part demolition of dividing walls) and upgrade of rooftop structures and alfresco dining. The works are documented within a report Proposed Alterations & Additions to The Glenmore Hotel prepared by John Oultram Heritage & Design, May 2013.
Historical significance: The license for the Glenmore Hotel has been associated with two buildings in Cumberland Street, continuously operating since 1837. The site's history prior to the construction of the Glenmore has strong links with the development of Australia's maritime industries. Initially traders and ship owners such as Captain John Hunter and the Chapman family, Captain Frederick Mahler, Captain George Bainbridge lived here with their families while they traded in the South Seas. Later part of the site was owned by wharf-builder Alfred Whetton, while tenants included shipwright Alfred Myers, sailors Henry Ellory and William White, waterman Thomas Waters, and in the last decades wharf labourers such as members of the Olsen family. The site's early history has further associations with members of the Walsh and Cheers family who operated pubs in The Rocks and other parts of Sydney from 1798.Site owners and occupants such as Harriet Walsh, George Bainbridge, George Atherden and Alfred Whetton also owned and developed other parts of The Rocks in the 19th century. The Glenmore, along with the Observer, Australian, Mercantile, and Fortune of War Hotels was constructed as part of the NSW Government's post-Resumption (ie 1901) reconstruction of The Rocks. Specifically this small group of hotels was not only to provide refreshment for the local community, but also places of lodgement for itinerant waterside workers following the reorganisation of the local wharves as part of the same NSW Government initiative.The Glenmore Hotel meets this criterion at a STATE level.
Historical association: The Glenmore Hotel was designed for Tooth & Co Brewers, Sydney's oldest brewing company. Tooth & Co. have strong presence and history with The Rocks having notable associations with the Fortune of War, ASN and Australian Hotels.The site of the Hotel was identified in 1913 as part of major landscape works which involved the re-alignment of Cumberland and Gloucester Streets, the construction of the bridge over Argyle Street, and the construction of the Argyle Stairs. These works pre-empt the design and construction of the Sydney Harbour Bridge.The Glenmore Hotel meets this criterion at a LOCAL level.
Aesthetic significance: The Glenmore Hotel makes a significant contribution to the historic streetscape of The Rocks and Cumberland Street. The building is a visual landmark within The Rocks owing to its prominent location and is readily seen from the Harbour Bridge, Argyle Courtyard, Argyle and Cumberland Streets. The Hotel retains key aesthetic characteristics of Hotel design typical to Tooth & Co. buildings, such as glazed tiles to the plinth level; simple boxed awnings exposed brickwork and rendered detailing. The building has been subject to several periods of alteration, including the recent 2012 works which included changes to the configuration of the first floor rooms, originally designed as accommodation, and the infill development to the northern yard and rooftop. The building retains however sufficient archival, documentary and physical evidence to allow for the reconstruction and interpretation of the original plan configuration and missing architectural detailing, such as the cornice to the Cumberland Street parapet (removed c.1975) The aesthetic significance of the Glenmore Hotel is demonstrated by:The extant glazed tiles to the Cumberland Street elevation, which date from the original construction;Reconstructed Juliet balconies which interpret the form and aesthetic of the original rendered elements removed c.1975.The Glenmore Hotel meets this criterion at a LOCAL level.
Social significance: Although the Glenmore Hotel has strong association with residents and visitors to Sydney as a well situated Hotel offering alfresco entertainment with distinctive harbour views the Hotel is not esteemed for its cultural values or sense of identity.The Glenmore Hotel does not meet this criterion.
Research significance: The site has the potential to yield information and archaeological remains from pre-European colonisation through to recent times. In particular evidence from the site can provide information on the former (pre-1912) alignment of Gloucester and Cumberland Streets and their immediate vicinity. The archaeological significance of Glenmore Hotel is demonstrated by:Intact archaeological deposits have the potential to inform about the former structures and lives of the occupants of the site to at least the earliest days of the colony.Potential undisturbed soil profiles can provide palynological data as to pre-European flora, and other early ecological data in the vicinityThe Glenmore Hotel meets this criterion at a STATE level.
Rare assessment: The Glenmore Hotel is rare as an example of post-plague Inter-War construction in The Rocks during what was an otherwise quiet period for the construction of buildings in the precinct at this time. It is not considered that the item is rare in a broader context as there remains extensive numbers of Inter-War Hotels throughout the Inner City and surrounding suburbs.While the type and proliferation of such Hotels was common in areas such as the Inner West of Sydney and east of the City prior to and immediately after World War II changes in social practices, such as the six o'clock swill and an increase on the pressures of urban density and residential accommodation have seen the closure, and adaptive re-use of many Hotels. The Rocks, and Millers Point to a degree, have retained a larger portion of operating licensed premises, and in this context the Glenmore Hotel is considered a representative rather than rare example of its type.The rarity of Glenmore Hotel is demonstrated by:This is one of the highest parts of The Rocks with intact archaeological and natural palynological deposits. It is considered rare as surrounding sites have been severely disturbed by quarrying and modern construction. The hotel is rare as it is one of a small number of buildings constructed in The Rocks between 1918 and 1970.The Glenmore Hotel meets this criterion at a LOCAL level.
Representative assessment: The Glenmore Hotel is a good representative example of an Inter War Hotel demonstrating many characteristics of Hotel design and planning of the period. The Hotel retains evidence of first floor accommodation and ground floor planning of the bar areas including remnants of the ladies parlour with segregated entrance from Gloucester Walk. Modifications to the buildings layout are representative of changing drinking habit of public bar facilities and the gradual reduction of 'genteel' drinking in parlours.The Glenmore Hotel meets this criterion at a STATE level.The representativeness of Glenmore Hotel is demonstrated by:The ability of the plan form to represent the history and change in trend of public bars with accommodation from the Inter War period;The design features typical of Hotels constructed in association with breweries;Its retention of many aesthetic characteristics of Hotels in the Inner City area, constructed to serve the working class.
Intact assessment: Archaeology partly disturbed, excavation carried on on site 2011
Physical condition: Archaeology Assessment Condition: Partly disturbed. Assessment Basis: Excavation in 1993 consisted of the monitoring of holes dug for four piers for a fire stair. One of these revealed a former road surface and gutter of Gloucester St on the eastern side of the hotel. It was evident that layers encountered during excavation were fill, presumably introduced to the site for the hotel's construction. If this is the case, the archaeological resource fronting Gloucester Street, situated at a lower level than Cumberland St, is possibly well preserved. Investigation: Watching Brief
|Australian Theme||NSW Theme||Local Theme|
|Developing local, regional and national economies||Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services.|
|Developing cultural institutions and ways of life||Activities associated with recreation and relaxation.|
|Heritage Listing||Listing Title||Listing Number||Gazette Date||Gazette Number||Gazette Page|
|Royal Australian Institute of Architects register||4703176|
|Heritage Act - State Heritage Register||01549||Glenmore Hotel||10/05/2002||2868||85|
|Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage register||Place Management NSW|