Archaeological Collections - (The Rocks sites)
Statement of SignificanceThe archaeological collections held by The Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority are of national significance for their potential to inform of almost all areas of human endeavour in The Rocks area and by extension the development of the colony of New South Wales and the Country of Australia. The collections contain material that provides evidence of the Eora people from approximately 600 years ago through to the very recent inhabitants of the areas.The collections together with information from historical research, specialist reports and artefact analysis allow a comprehensive understanding of the history of the sites and enables conclusions to be drawn about the construction, function and heritage value of the sites, remaining relics, and artefacts.
Movable / Collection
Other - Collections
Construction Years: 0 - 0
Physical Description: The following indicates past archaeological investigations in The Rocks area, and archaeological collections held by Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority up to 2009:1978 - Kendall Lane (Kendall's Biscuit Factory)1979 - 199 George St (Sydney Gaol)1986 - 110 George St (Cadman's Cottage) - 155 George St (Globe St Site) - Harrington St Site - 124-130 George St (Park - Cadman's Cottage Grounds) - Gloucester St Site (Quay West Building Site)1987 - Grosvenor Place - 30 Harrington St - 110 George St (Cadman's Cottage)1988 - 110 George St (Cadman's Cottage) - 139 George St - Campbell's Cove - Cumberland St (Bunker's Hill Well)1989 - 176 Cumberland (Lilyvale) - Australian Hotel Site (Cumberland Gloucester St Site) - 28-32 Harrington St - Harrington St - Cambridge St - Essex St1990 - George St - 100 George St (Mariners Church) - George St/Hickson Rd - 28-32 Harrington St - 77-85 George St (Unwins Stores) - 2-6 Kendall Lane (The Coach House) - 100 Cumberland St (Australian Hotel) - Kendall Lane (Sampson's Cottage) - 103 Hickson Road - 95 George St - Foundation Park1991 - 134-140 George St - 12-26 Playfair ST (Scarborough House) - George St - 69 George St - 103-111 Gloucester ST (Jobbins Building) - 121-127 Harrington St (Bushells Building)1992 - 106 George St (Sailors Home) - Essex, George, Argyle Streets and First Fleet Park - 58-64 Gloucester St (Susannah Place) - 103-111 Gloucester St (Jobbins Building)1993 - 43-45 George St (Merchants House) - 96 Cumberland St (Glenmore Hotel) - Argyle Stores/Foundation Park1994 - Cumberland/Gloucester St - 113-117 Gloucester St - Dawes Point Battery1995 - St Patrick's Church - Dawes Point Battery - 182.5-186 Cumberland St - 39-43 Argyle St (British Seamans Hotel) - Dawes point Battery1996 - King George V Playground1997 - St Patrick's Church - King George V Playground - 132-134 George St (museum of Contemporary Art Carpark)1998 - Longs Lane2000 - Dawes Point for intrepretive park2005-2009 - Cumberland/Gloucester St Dig Site, Sydney University Summer School, Redevelopment for YHA2006 - Australian Hotel Cellar2008 - Bethel St under the Mariner's Church2008 - Reynell Building, Cumberland St
Historic Notes and Themes
Historical notes: The archaeological collections held by the Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority cover a time period of at least 600 years of human activity around The Rocks area.
Historical significance: The archaeological collections are historically important because they cover the span of human activity from at least 600 years ago to the present time.
Historical association: The archaeological collection of the Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority are associated with the original inhabitants of Sydney Harbour, or Cadi, the Eora people. They are associated with all stages of British colonisation of the area, including convicts, military and free settlers, and their descendants that remained in the area. The collections are associated with the great many people who have lived and worked in The Rocks area.
Social significance: The archaeological collection held by the Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority have high social importance in their potential to reveal information about the past activities of many groups who have lived and worked in The Rocks area. They also have the potential to reveal details about the way in which New South Wales and Australia developed in all areas as evidence of the expansion of the colony and later country in almost all areas of human endeavour.
Research significance: The archaeological collections held by the Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority are of high research value because of their potential to reveal information about a large range of human activity in The Rocks area from the time of the original inhabitants, the Eora people, through the British colonisation period right up until modern day. The collections cover a range of activity, including military, domestic, industrial, educational, scientific and medical, the list is not exhaustive.
Rare assessment: The archaeological collections held by the Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority are rare and cannot be replaced.
Representative assessment: The archaeological collections held by the Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority are representative of all phases of human occupation for the past c600 years in The Rocks area.
Intact assessment: Collections
|Australian Theme||NSW Theme||Local Theme|
|Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments||Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures.|
|Peopling the continent||Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practises, past and present.|
|Peopling the continent||Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities.|
|Peopling the continent||Activities associated with common cultural traditions and peoples of shared descent, and with exchanges between such traditions and peoples.|
|Peopling the continent||Activities and processes associated with the resettling of people from one place to another (international, interstate, intrastate) and the impacts of such movements.|
|Developing local, regional and national economies||Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services.|
|Developing local, regional and national economies||Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings.|
|Developing local, regional and national economies||Activities associated with gathering, producing, distributing, and consuming resources from aquatic environments useful to humans.|
|Developing local, regional and national economies||Activities associated with preparing and providing medical assistance and/or promoting or maintaining the well being of humans.|
|Developing local, regional and national economies||Activities associated with the manufacture, production and distribution of goods.|
|Developing local, regional and national economies||Activities and processes associated with the knowledge or use of mechanical arts and applied sciences.|
|Building settlements, towns and cities||Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation ? does not include architectural styles ? use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities.|
|Building settlements, towns and cities||Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages.|
|Building settlements, towns and cities||Activities associated with the provision of services, especially on a communal basis.|
|Working||Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour.|
|Educating||Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally.|
|Governing||Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation.|
|Governing||Activities associated with maintaining, promoting and implementing criminal and civil law and legal processes.|
|Governing||Activities and process associated with the provision of social services by the state or philanthropic organisations.|
|Developing cultural institutions and ways of life||Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities.|
|Developing cultural institutions and ways of life||Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions.|
|Developing cultural institutions and ways of life||Activities associated with recreation and relaxation.|
|Developing cultural institutions and ways of life||Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship.|
|Developing cultural institutions and ways of life||Activities and organisational arrangements for the provision of social activities.|
|Developing local, regional and national economies||Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture.|
|Developing cultural institutions and ways of life||Activities associated with organised recreational and health promotional activities.|
|Marking the phases of life||Activities associated with the initial stages of human life and the bearing of children, and with the final stages of human life and disposal of the dead.|
|Marking the phases of life||Activities and processes that mark the consequences of natural and cultural occurences.|
|Marking the phases of life||Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups.|
|Developing local, regional and national economies||Activities relating to the creation and conveyance of information.|
|Developing local, regional and national economies||Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use.|
|Developing local, regional and national economies||Activities associated with systematic observations, experiments and processes for the explanation of observable phenomena.|
|Developing local, regional and national economies||Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements.|
|Heritage Listing||Listing Title||Listing Number||Gazette Date||Gazette Number||Gazette Page|
|Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage register||Place Management NSW|